The group of per- or polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) encompasses over 10,000 compounds. These substances are synthetically produced by replacing hydrogen atoms either fully (perfluorinated) or partially (polyfluorinated) with fluorine atoms within carbon chains of varying lengths. This chemical alteration results in substances that are resistant to water, grease, and dirt. Additionally, they possess thermal and chemical stability. On one hand, these properties explain their wide-ranging applications, such as in cosmetics, cookware, paper coatings, textiles, and ski wax. On the other hand, their stability raises concerns due to their non-biodegradability and accumulation in the environment and living organisms since their invention in the 1940s.